The Puncak Mandala is situated in the New Papua province in the Oceanic nation of Indonesia, and it is one of the World's Second Summits, representing the region of Oceania. It was also known as Juliana Peak or Juliana Top until the year 1963. The peak attains an elevation of 4,760 meters, or 15,617 feet, amongst the mountain peaks in the area. It is also one of the highest free-standing mountains of Oceania, Australasia, New Guinea, and Indonesia, and also follows Mount Carstensz, which is 350 kilometers to the west. The peak has been rated as the second highest peak in Oceania with the use of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission.
Puncak Mandala is being rated as one of the three highest massifs, along with the Puncak Trikora and Carstensz, in the Western New Guinea province. Just as the other peaks have also lost their ice caps, similarly is the case with this peak, as it lost its own as well in the year 1960. This was also found true by the Dutch adventurers who mapped it and saw it forms the part of a mountain star in the eastern region, situated near the border between Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. The climbing to the peak was first successfully done in the year 1959 by the members of Dutch Star Mountains Expedition, who also found a lake in the area which is named as Beatrix More, and is about 800 meters in length
The main threat to the peak is global warming, which has caused its ice cap to melt during recent years and, due to that, the height of the peak is becoming steadily lowered down still today. Even this melting has posed danger to the trekkers, as their expeditions fail many times. The other threat is to the species living in the area, as they are often hunted down by the local villagers, many of whom also work as guides for the climbers.
NOTE: Trip reports were previously called "Summit Logs" - same feature, new name
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